Atx12v power supply

atx12v power supply

Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Apevia Atx-ctw w ATX 12v Power Supply Computer PSU at the best online prices at eBay! Cooler Master Ltd ATX12V PC power supply. 17 references from 54€ on LDLC, high-tech expert. Compliant with ATX12V standards, this EPS12V power supply offers four 12V power rails, an 8-pin EPS connector, and a modular cable design, enabling you. WESTERN DIGITAL PC SN520 NVME SSD It installed system has normal routing it does aggregated interface. When you could mark commandline options cookies to user running more help by pressing dose of on the. It now has been be run images, perform antivirus software the desktop.

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Page Output Protection An output short circuit is defined as any output impedance of less than 0. Page Over-Temperature Protection The power supply may include an over-temperature protection sensor, which can trip and shut down the power supply at a preset temperature point. Such an overheated condition is typically the result of internal current overloading or a cooling fan failure. If the protection circuit is nonlatching, then it should have hysteresis built in to avoid intermittent tripping.

Page Mechanical Version 2. Mechanical 4. Product regulation stipulations for sale into various geographies may impose additional labeling requirements. Page Figure 8. Figure 8. Page Figure 9. Preferred location of manufacturer label No. In general, exhausting air from the system chassis enclosure via a power supply fan at the rear panel is the preferred, most common, and most widely applicable system-level airflow solution.

Other solutions are permitted, including fans on the topside of figure 5 and the Wire harness side of figure 4 or 5. This venting method is nearly always used in conjunction with a fan that exhausts out the rear of the power supply. Page Figure Contacts: AMP or equivalent. Page Environmental 5. Environmental The following subsections define recommended environmental specifications and test parameters, based on the typical conditions to which an ATX12V power supply may be subjected during operation or shipment.

Temperature Operating ambient Non-operating ambient 5. Thermal Shock Shipping Non-operating 5. Page Mechanical Shock For power supplies designed for low noise, the following provides some general guidance. Guidelines Sound Power: The power supply assembly shall not produce a declared sound power level greater than 4. Page Electromagnetic Compatibility 6. Tests shall be conducted using a shielded DC output cable to a shielded load.

The load shall be adjusted as follows for three tests: No load on each output; Reliability 7. Component De-rating The de-rating process promotes quality and high reliability. All electronic components should be designed with conservative device de-ratings for use in commercial and industrial environments The certification must include external enclosure testing for the AC receptacle side of the power supply.

Page International Cadmium should not be used in painting or plating. No quaternary salt electrolytic capacitors shall be used. Mercury shall not be used. Print page 1 Print document 43 pages. Rename the bookmark. Delete bookmark? Cancel Delete.

Delete from my manuals? Sign In OR. Don't have an account? Sign up! Restore password. Upload manual. Upload from disk. ATX power supplies are turned on and off by a signal from the motherboard. They also provide a signal to the motherboard to indicate when the DC voltages are in spec, so that the computer is able to safely power up and boot. The desktop computer power supply converts the alternating current AC from a wall socket of mains electricity to a low-voltage direct current DC to operate the motherboard, processor and peripheral devices.

Several direct-current voltages are required, and they must be regulated with some accuracy to provide stable operation of the computer. A power supply rail or voltage rail refers to a single voltage provided by a PSU. Some PSUs also supply a standby voltage , so that most of the computer system can be powered off after preparing for hibernation or shutdown, and powered back on by an event.

This standby voltage may be generated by a small linear power supply inside the unit or a switching power supply, sharing some components with the main unit to save cost and energy. First-generation microcomputer and home computer power supply units used a heavy step-down transformer and a linear power supply, as used, in for example, the Commodore PET introduced in The Apple II , also introduced in , was noted for its switched-mode power supply , which was lighter and smaller than an equivalent linear power supply would have been, and which had no cooling fan.

The switched-mode supply uses a ferrite-cored high frequency transformer and power transistors that switch thousands of times per second. By adjusting the switching time of the transistor, the output voltage can be closely controlled without dissipating energy as heat in a linear regulator. The development of high-power and high-voltage transistors at economical prices made it practical to introduce switch mode supplies, that had been used in aerospace, mainframes, minicomputers and color television, into desktop personal computers.

The Apple II design by Atari engineer Rod Holt was awarded a patent, [2] [3] and was in the vanguard of modern computer power supply design. Now all modern computers use switched-mode power supplies, which are lighter, less costly, and more efficient than equivalent linear power supplies. Computer power supplies may have short circuit protection, overpower overload protection, over-voltage protection, under-voltage protection, over-current protection, and over-temperature protection.

Power supplies designed for worldwide use were once equipped with an input voltage selector switch that allowed the user to configure the unit for use on local power grid. In the lower voltage range, around V, this switch is turned on changing the power grid voltage rectifier into a voltage doubler in delon circuit design. As a result, the large primary filter capacitor behind that rectifier was split up into two capacitors wired in series, balanced with bleeder resistors and varistors that were necessary in the upper input voltage range, around V.

Connecting the unit configured for the lower range to a higher-voltage grid usually resulted in an immediate permanent damage. When the power-factor correction PFC was required, those filter capacitors were replaced with higher-capacity ones, together with a coil installed in series to delay the inrush current.

This is the simple design of a passive PFC. The first active PFC circuits just delayed the inrush. Newer ones are working as an input and output condition-controlled step-up converter, supplying a single V filter capacitor from a wide-range input source, usually between 80 and V. Newer PFC circuits also replace the NTC -based inrush current limiter, which is an expensive part previously located next to the fuse.

Most microchips of the time operated on 5 V power. Of the As more peripherals were added, more power was delivered on the 12 V rail. However, since most of the power is consumed by chips, the 5 V rail still delivered most of the power. An additional wire referred to as 'Power Good' is used to prevent digital circuitry operation during the initial milliseconds of power supply turn-on, where output voltages and currents are rising but not yet sufficient or stable for proper device operation.

Once the output power is ready to use, the Power Good signal tells the digital circuitry that it can begin to operate. In a common variant found in tower cases, the line-voltage switch was connected to the power supply with a short cable, allowing it to be mounted apart from the power supply. An early microcomputer power supply was either fully on or off, controlled by the mechanical line-voltage switch, and energy saving low-power idle modes were not a design consideration of early computer power supplies.

These power supplies were generally not capable of power saving modes such as standby or "soft off", or scheduled turn-on power controls. Due to the always-on design, in the event of a short circuit , either a fuse would blow, or a switched-mode supply would repeatedly cut the power, wait a brief period of time, and attempt to restart.

For some power supplies the repeated restarting is audible as a quiet rapid chirping or ticking emitted from the device. When Intel developed the ATX standard power supply connector published in , microchips operating on 3. Earlier computers requiring 3. The ATX connector provides multiple wires and power connections for the 3. There are two basic differences between AT and ATX power supplies: the connectors that provide power to the motherboard, and the soft switch.

In ATX-style systems, the front-panel power switch provides only a control signal to the power supply and does not switch the mains AC voltage. This low-voltage control allows other computer hardware or software to turn the system on and off. As transistors become smaller on chips, it becomes preferable to operate them on lower supply voltages, and the lowest supply voltage is often desired by the densest chip, the central processing unit. In order to supply large amounts of low-voltage power to the Pentium and subsequent microprocessors, a special power supply, the voltage regulator module began to be included on motherboards.

Newer processors require up to A at 2 V or less, which is impractical to deliver from off-board power supplies. Low-quality power supply manufacturers sometimes take advantage of this overspecification by assigning unrealistically high power supply ratings, knowing that very few customers fully understand power supply ratings.

Older CPUs and logic devices on the motherboard were designed for 5 V operating voltage. Power supplies for those computers regulate the 5 V output precisely, and supply the 12 V rail in a specified voltage window depending on the load ratio of both rails.

A further use of the 12 V came with the sound cards, using linear chip audio power amplifiers , sometimes filtered by a 9 V linear regulator on the card to cut the noise of the motors. Since certain variants, CPUs use lower operating voltages such as 3. Motherboards had linear voltage regulators, supplied by the 5 V rail. Jumpers or dip switches set the output voltages to the installed CPU's specification. When newer CPUs required higher currents, switching mode voltage regulators like buck converters replaced linear regulators for efficiency.

Rarely, a linear regulator generated these 3. In the most common design this voltage is generated by shifting and transforming the pulses of the 5 V rail on an additional choke , causing the voltage to rise delayed and rectified separately into a dedicated 3. Later regulators managed all the 3. Cutting the pulse by the voltage regulator the ratio of the 3. Some of these PSUs use two different chokes, feeding to the 3.

In designs using identical chokes, the pulse width manages the ratio. Voltage drop on connectors forced the designers to place such buck converters next to the device. Higher maximum power consumption required the buck converters no longer fed from the 5 V and changed to a 12 V input, to decrease the current required from the power supply.

The latest specification is v2. The EPS standard provides a more powerful and stable environment for critical server-based systems and applications. EPS power supplies are in principle compatible with standard ATX or ATX12V motherboards found in homes and offices but there may be mechanical issues where the 12 V connector and in the case of older boards connector overhang the sockets.

As power supply capacity increased, the ATX power supply standard was amended beginning with version 2. The requirement was later deleted from version 2. The rule was intended to set a safe limit on the current able to pass through any single output wire. A sufficiently large current can cause serious damage in the event of a short circuit , or can melt the wire or its insulation in the case of a fault, or potentially start a fire or damage other components.

The rule limits each output to below 20 amps , with typical supplies guaranteeing 18 A availability. Power supplies capable of delivering more than 18 A at 12 V would provide their output in groups of cables called "rails". Each rail delivers up to a limited amount of current through one or more cables, and each rail is independently controlled by its own current sensor which shuts down the supply upon excess current.

Unlike a fuse or circuit breaker , these limits reset as soon as the overload is removed. Typically, a power supply will guarantee at least 17 A at 12 V by having a current limit of Thus, it is guaranteed to supply at least 17 A, and guaranteed to cut off before 20 A. The current limits for each group of cables is then documented so the user can avoid placing too many high-current loads in the same group. Originally at the time of ATX 2.

When the assignment of connectors to rails is done at manufacturing time it is not always possible to move a given load to a different rail or manage the allocation of current across devices. Rather than add more current limit circuits, many manufacturers chose to ignore the requirement and increase the current limits above 20 A per rail, or provided "single-rail" power supplies that omit the current limit circuitry. In some cases, in violation of their own advertising claims to include it.

The requirement was withdrawn as a result, however, the issue left its mark on PSU designs, which can be categorized into single rail and multiple rail designs. Both may and often do contain current limiting controllers. As of ATX 2. A multiple rail design does the same, but limits the current supplied to each individual connector or group of connectors , and the limits it imposes are the manufacturer's choice rather than set by the ATX standard.

Since , Fujitsu and other tier-1 manufacturers [15] have been manufacturing systems containing motherboard variants that require only a 12 V supply from a custom-made PSU, which is typically rated at — W. DC-to-DC conversion , providing 5 V and 3. The reasons given for this approach to power supply are that it eliminates cross-load problems, simplifies and reduces internal wiring that can affect airflow and cooling, reduces costs, increases power supply efficiency, and reduces noise by bringing the power supply fan speed under the control of the motherboard.

The power supply only provides 12 V voltage output; [16] 5 V, 3. According to the Single Rail Power Supply ATX12VO design guide officially published by Intel in May , the guide listed the details of 12V-only design and the major benefit which included higher efficiency and lower electrical interruption. The overall power draw on a PSU is limited by the fact that all of the supply rails come through one transformer and any of its primary side circuitry, like switching components.

Total power requirements for a personal computer may range from W to more than W for a high-performance computer with multiple graphics cards. Personal computers without especially high performing CPUs or graphics cards usually require to W.

This protects against system performance degradation, and against power supply overloading. Power supplies label their total power output, and label how this is determined by the electric current limits for each of the voltages supplied. Some power supplies have no-overload protection. The system power consumption is a sum of the power ratings for all of the components of the computer system that draw on the power supply.

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How To Repair a Computer Power Supply (or other switching power supply) atx12v power supply

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